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A hash pointer is similar to a pointer, but instead of just containing the address of the previous block it also contains the hash of the data inside the previous block. This one small tweak, is what makes blockchains so amazingly reliable and trailblazing. Imagine this for a second, a hacker attacks block 3 and tries to change the data. Because of the properties of hash functions, a slight change in data will change the hash drastically. This means that any slight changes made in block 3, will change the hash which is stored in block 2, now that in turn will change the data and the hash of block 2 which will result in changes in block 1 and so on and so forth.
This will completely change the chain, which is impossible. This is exactly how blockchains attain immutability. Proof-of-work, basically means this: Solving a problem must be extremely difficult, but once you solve it, proving that the solution is correct should be simple.
We will see how bitcoin and most cryptocurrencies utilize it later. But for now, we must understand WHY proof-of-work was required in the first place. One of the many problems that Nakamoto was facing was addressing the Byzantine Generals Problem. Every digital peer-to-peer decentralized currency system failed because they failed to answer the Byzantine Generals Problem. Nakamoto was finally able to answer this using proof-of-work. Ok so imagine that there is a group of byzantine generals and they want to attack a city.
They are facing two very distinct problems:. A number of things can happen to the poor messenger. He could get captured, compromised, killed and replaced with another messenger by the city. This would lead to the armies getting tampered information which may result in an uncoordinated attack and defeat.
This has clear references to blockchain as well. The chain is a huge network; how can you possibly trust them? This is how it works. What that means is that for the most part, each input will have its own unique hash. So what if the city gets the message, tampers with it and then accordingly change the nonce until they get the desired result which has the required number of 0s?
This will be extremely time consuming but it is still possible. To counter this, the generals are going to use strength in numbers. Suppose, instead of just one general on the left sending messages to one general on the right, there are 3 generals on the left who have to send a message to the ones on the right.
In order to do that, they can make their own message and then hash the cumulative message and then append a nonce to the resulting hash and hash it again. This time, they want a message which starts with six 0s. Obviously, this is going to be extremely time consuming, but this time, if the messenger does get caught by the city, the amount of time that they will take to tamper the cumulative message and then find the corresponding nonce for the hash will be infinitely more.
It may even take years. So, eg. The generals on the right have it pretty easy. All they have to do is to append the message with the correct nonce that will be given to them, hash them, and see whether the hash matches or not. Hashing a string is very easy to do. That in essence is the process behind proof-of-work. They use their computational power to mine for blocks by solving cryptographic puzzles. One block in bitcoin is mined every 10 mins. Suppose Alice wants to send a certain number of bitcoins to Bob.
How does the transaction system in Bitcoin work? Bitcoin transactions are very different from Fiat wallet transactions. There are two sides to a transaction, the Input and the Output. This entire Transaction will have a name that we will figure out in the end. In order to make this transaction happen, Alice needs to get bitcoins which she has received from various previous transactions. Remember, like we said before, in bitcoins, each and every coin is accounted for via a transaction history.
These three transactions will be added together and that will give you the input transaction which we shall call TX Input. The output basically will have the amount of bitcoins that Bob will posses post transaction and any remaining change that is left over, which is then sent back to Alice.
This change then becomes her input value for all future transactions. Now, this is a very simple transaction that has just one output apart from the CHANGE , there are transactions that are possible with multiple outputs. This is what the basic layout of the transaction looks like. For this entire thing to go through, however, certain conditions must be met. The Input including the signature data and the output data is added together and hashed using the SHA hashing algorithm.
The output hash is the name that is given to this transaction. This is what the transaction looks like in the code form aka script form. Suppose Alice wants to send 0. This is what the transaction detail looks like:. See the input data? Now, remember that out input data was 0. This is greater than 0. The deficit of these two values is the transaction fee that the miners are collecting. It is basically the first transaction data that is on the block, and it signifies the mining reward that miners get upon mining the block.
As of right now the reward is These transactions have no input data and they only have output data. One thing you need to keep in mind, a transaction in Bitcoin goes through if and only if the miner, who has mined the block, physically puts in your transaction inside the block. A miner can become a temporary dictator of the block that they have mined.
They can charge transaction fees for each and every transaction that they put inside the block. As the number of transactions increased by leaps and bounds, the rate at which the blocks filled up increased as well. More often than not, people actually had to wait till new blocks were created so that their transactions would go through. This created a backlog of transactions, in fact the only way to get your transactions prioritized was to pay a high enough transaction fee to attract and incentivize the miners to prioritize your transactions.
Basically, this is how it works. Suppose Alice is sending 5 bitcoins to Bob, but the transaction is not going through because of a backlog. However, she can do another transaction of 5 bitcoins with Bob but this time with transaction fees which are high enough to incentivize the miners. As the miners put her transaction in the block, it will also overwrite the previous transaction and make it null and void.
Creating and maintaining a public blockchain is not easy because of a number of reasons. Blockchains, as David Schwartz puts it, should be fortresses. Firstly, the code is public and open for all to see. Anyone can look over the code and check for bugs and vulnerabilities. However, unlike other open code resources, the downside of finding vulnerabilities on blockchain code is massive.
Any programmer can hack in and get away with potentially millions and millions of dollars. Because of these legitimate security concerns, development on blockchain is usually very slow. It is important to keep pace with the network. You cannot fall too far behind and not keep up with all the network demands.
You should be well equipped to handle remote and local queries. The blockchain must always perform at its highest possible capabilities, but for that to happen the language chosen must be extremely versatile. All that you need for signature verification is the key, transaction and the signature. With just three data you can conduct verifications in a parallelized manner. However, not all the functions on a blockchain should be done that way.
Think of transaction execution itself. Some languages are good at parallel operations while some are good in non-parallel operations. That is called deterministic behavior. So, in blockchain development, all transaction operations must be deterministic. You cannot have a transaction that behaves one way and then behaves another way the next day.
Similarly, you cannot have smart contracts that work in two different ways in two different machines. The only solution to this is isolation. Basically you isolate your smart contracts and transactions from non-deterministic elements.
So, we have discussed the main problems that blockchain developers face. The Language was designed to have the flexibility and efficiency of the C but with some major differences. Shout out Peter Wiulle and David Schwartz for the following explanation. Remember what we said earlier about the challenges of blockchain development? Not only should blockchains be secured fortresses but they should have effective resource management as well.
A blockchain is supposed to interact with a lot of untrusted endpoints while still giving quick service to any and all nodes. This quick and prompt service is critical for the success of a cryptocurrency like bitcoin. In order to satisfy all these demands and perform at the highest level, you need tight and complete control over CPU and memory usage. A thread is a set of instructions that can be executed simultaneously. Move semantics provides a way for the contents to be moved between objects rather than be copied outright.
So what is happening here? The value of b goes into a and b remains unchanged at the end of the whole thing. That is the difference between copy semantics and move semantics. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Previous page. Andreas M. Saifedean Ammous. Lorne Lantz. Bitcoin and Bible Group. Mastering Blockchain: A deep dive into distributed ledgers, consensus protocols, smart contracts, DApps, cryptocurrencies, Ethereum, and more, 3rd Edition. Imran Bashir.
Next page. Customers who bought this item also bought. Jonathan Bier. From the brand. From the Publisher. Review "The exercises in this book will not only teach you the mechanics of working with the blockchain but also [give you] an intuition for the elegance and beauty of this technology.
About the author Follow authors to get new release updates, plus improved recommendations. Jimmy Song. Brief content visible, double tap to read full content. Full content visible, double tap to read brief content. Read more Read less. Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.
It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. His material is amazingly in-depth and comprehensive. From finite fields math to elliptic curves to how wallets and transactions are created, to the different types of transaction formats and how to create them yourself, to more advanced topics like SegWit and Lightning.
Well worth the investment. At this price point, this is unacceptable, for the content - presumably these are graphs or necessary code sections - this is inexcusable. Possibly buy the actual book instead. Learned some rudimentary python just so I could go through the book. Just enough to understand the syntax and the inner workings of python.
Not good enough at programming to have taken full advantage of the book but it really helped me a lot in understanding the math behind Bitcoin. From the very basics of cryptography to understanding address generation, Script, transaction validation, block validation, and even some networking. A must read for anyone interested in understanding Bitcoin at a more technical level, rather than just taking the word of developers.
For me it was great first step towards financial Bitcoin sovereignty. An amazing book. If you really want to understand Bitcoin, read Mastering Bitcoin first, then work your way through this book. Highest recommendation. Great book, easy to navigate for a beginner, I would definitely recommend this to someone getting into bitcoin as a good first book.
One person found this helpful. Step 2 - Buy This Book. This is why I recommend you buy Mastering Bitcoin first to understand how the Bitcoin system works from a higher level. Then, buy this book to understand more about how it works under the hood and how to write Bitcoin programs.
Wish I had this book earlier before going through gathering info on my own through many missleading and confusing materials on this subject. This book is result of his teachings through the years and although would not recommend it as a substitute for in person workshop, it can definitely save you months of study. You will get very good understanding of the details of how Bitcoin works from elliptic curves, elliptic curve cryptography through creating, parsing, signing and verifying transactions all the way to Merkle Tree constructions, Segwit and Bloom Filters.
Definitely worth every penny and can later serve you as a good reference. See all reviews. Top reviews from other countries. Translate all reviews to English. I want to know the technical details, I do not want my time wasted with extraneous exercises. In this book you are forced to complete the exercises in order to fill the deliberate gaps in the software and arrive at a complete programming solution. I want the solution as a possible but unlikely reference for the future.
It seems to have the attitude common to Perl rather than Python. In that in Python full solutions are the norm and there is great respect for the readers time which is not wasted on ego trip puzzles. It starts from the very beginning and assumes no knowledge. The mathematics are explained clearly in small bite sized chunks and built upon so you understand the why, not just the what. When you understand why things are the way the are then everything else clicks so much faster.
By the end of the book, you'll understand how this cryptocurrency works under the hood by coding all the components necessary for a Bitcoin library. Learn how. Купить книгу Programming Bitcoin: Learn How to Program Bitcoin from Scratch 1st Edition автора Jimmy Song по цене: 2 грн ISBN: - Эта и. Ранг: 14 вне контратаки учебники / курсы. Да, это звание Programming Bitcoin: Learn How to Progra среди всех учебных пособий Bitcoin.