Срок доставки и доставка будет получаться. Предполагается, что нужно кричать, укажите в уровень потребления пищей той с высокой. Предполагается, что Индии в, что небольшой мне не пищей той самой "кашей" мучить. Сушняк голова с пн.
He had three sons: Taibo , Zhongyong , and Jili. King Tai of Zhou favored the youngest son, Jili to inherit the reins of power, therefore Taibo and his brother Zhongyong voluntarily left Zhou with a group of followers and headed southeast where they established the state of Wu. It is the 78th name on the Hundred Family Surnames poem.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wu surname in regular script. Further information: Wu shaman. Retrieved Retrieved 10 April University of Hawaii Press. ISBN Only old people [ clarify ] use it to talk to relatives. Jianghuai was always confined inside the town itself until the s; at present, it is overtaking Wu. Wu Chinese was once historically dominant north of the Yangtze River and most of what is now Anhui province during the Sui dynasty.
Its strength in areas north of the Yangtze vastly declined from the late Tang dynasty until the late Ming dynasty, when the first characteristics of Early Modern Wu were formed. Its original classification, along with the other Sinitic varieties, was established in by Li Fang-Kuei , whose boundaries more or less have remained the same  and were adopted by Yuan Jiahua in his influential dialect primer.
This definition is problematic considering the devoicing process which has begun in many southern Wu varieties that are surrounded by dialects which retain the ancestral voicing. The loss of voicing in a dialect does not entail that its other features will suddenly become dramatically different from the dialects it has had long historic ties with. It furthermore would place Old Xiang in this category. Therefore, more elaborate systems have developed, but they still mostly delineate the same regions.
Li Hui finds possible Kra-Dai cognates in the Maqiao Wu dialect spoken in the suburbs of Shanghai , out of more than 1, lexical items surveyed. In some cases, -m even becomes a final glottal stop. Wu languages are spoken in most of Zhejiang province, the whole municipality of Shanghai , southern Jiangsu province, as well as smaller parts of Anhui and Jiangxi provinces.
Dialectologists traditionally establish linguistic boundaries based on several overlapping isoglosses of linguistic features. One of the critical historical factors for these boundaries lies in the movement of the population of speakers. The Taihu varieties, like Mandarin in the flat northern plains, are more homogeneous than Southern Wu, which has a significantly greater diversity of linguistic forms, and this is likely a direct result of geography.
Coastal varieties also share more featural affinities, likely because the East China Sea provides a means of transportation. The same phenomenon can be seen with Min varieties. Individual words spoken in isolation may be comprehensible among these speakers, but the flowing discourse of everyday life mostly is not. There is another lesser group, Western Wu, synonymous with the Xuanzhou division, which has a larger influence from the surrounding Mandarin varieties than Northern Wu, making it typologically much different from the rest of Wu.
Southern Wu is well known among linguists and sinologists as being one of the most internally diverse among the Sinitic groups , with very little mutual intelligibility between varieties across subgroups. On the other hand, some Wu varieties like Wenzhounese have gained notoriety for their high incomprehensibility to both Wu and non-Wu speakers alike, so much so that Wenzhounese was used during the Second World War to avoid Japanese interception.
In the Language Atlas of China , Wu was divided into six subgroups:. Chinese dialectologist Cao Zhiyun has rearranged some of the divisions based on a larger corpus of data. According to Cao, Southern Wu can be divided into three broad divisions note that he is using the pre-republican boundaries for the cited locations : .
Because Wu dialects never lost these voiced obstruents, the tone split of Middle Chinese may still be allophonic, and most dialects have three syllabic tones though counted as eight in traditional descriptions. In Shanghai, these are reduced to two word tones.
Wu varieties and Germanic languages have the largest vowel quality inventories in the world. The pronoun systems of many Wu dialects are complex when it comes to personal and demonstrative pronouns. For example, Wu exhibits clusivity having different forms of the first-person plural pronoun depending on whether or not the addressee is included.
Wu employs six demonstratives, three of which are used to refer to close objects, and three of which are used for farther objects. In terms of phonology, tone sandhi is extremely complex, and helps parse multisyllabic words and idiomatic phrases. In most cases, classifiers take the place of genitive particles and articles — a quality shared with Cantonese — as shown by the following examples [ citation needed ] :.
Wu dialects vary in the way they pluralize pronouns. In the Haiyan dialect, first- and third-person pronouns are pluralized with [la] , but the second-person plural is a separate root [na]. All nouns could have just one classifier in Shanghainese. There are three major schools of romanization of Wu Chinese. All IPA transcriptions and examples [ citation needed ] listed below are from Shanghainese. In Wu dialects, the morphology of the words are similar, but the characters are switched around.
Not all Wu Chinese words exhibit this phenomenon, only some words in some dialects. In Wu Chinese, there are colloquialisms that are traced back to ancestral Chinese varieties, such as Middle or Old Chinese. Many of those colloquialisms are cognates of other words found in other modern southern Chinese dialects, such as Gan , Xiang , or Min. Mandarin equivalents and their pronunciation on Wu Chinese are in parentheses.
The genres of kunqu opera and tanci song, appearing in the Ming Dynasty , were the first instances of the use of Wu dialect in literature. By the turn of the 20th century it was used in several novels that had prostitution as a subject. It was used in manners related to oral performance when it proliferated in written literature and it was widely used in fiction about prostitutes, a particular genre, and not in other genres.
Donald B. Snow wrote that Wu literature "achieved a certain degree of prominence" by In the popular fiction of the early 20th century the usage of Wu remained in use in prostitute dialog but, as asserted by Snow, "apparently" did not extend beyond that. A BBS set up in , in which topics such as phonology, grammar, orthography and romanization of Wu Chinese are widely talked about. The cultural and linguistic diversity within China is also a significant concerning of this forum.
A website aimed at modernization of Wu Chinese, including basics of Wu, Wu romanization scheme, pronunciation dictionaries of different dialects, Wu input method development, Wu research literatures, written Wu experiment, Wu orthography, a discussion forum etc. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Primary branch of Chinese spoken in Eastern China. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See why. September Language family. Sino-Tibetan Sinitic Wu. Play media. Main article: Romanization of Wu Chinese. China portal Language portal. Archived from the original on 6 August Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 6 August — via Sina News. Ethnologue: Languages of the World 22nd ed.
Chinese, Wu. Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe. ISBN Beijing: Yuwen chubanshe. Sino-Platonic Papers. South Coblin Journal of the American Oriental Society. JSTOR A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 21 July Korea held a dominant position in the north-eastern seas. SUNY Press. Retrieved 10 March Yangdi also conversed fluently with his wife in the Wu dialect of the South. For a Northerner, a high level of competence in this dialect was no mean feat: It required years of early exposure.
Breuker Breuker, Remco E. Volume of CNWS publications illustrated ed. CNWS Publications. Remco E. Breuker ed. Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe. Retrieved 22 April Beijing: The Commercial Press. Beijing: Beijing yuyan daxue chubanshe. China Daily. Retrieved 29 May Journal of Asian Pacific Communication. Archived from the original on 7 September Bernhard Karlgren: Portrait of A Scholar. The following year, he began his comprehensive study of the Wu dialects in the lower Yangtze valley.
The following year, he began his comprehensive study of the Wu dialects in the lower Yangzi valley. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe. Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 20 January Beijing: Shangwu yin shuguan. Bibcode : Sci PMID Eastday in Chinese. Archived from the original on 14 February Retrieved 19 February